Nursing Classification: What's in a Name? References

American Nurses Association (ANA)

The following information is online at ANA's site, NursingWorld

Position Statement: A National Nursing Database to Support Clinical Nursing Practice
Position statement summarizing ANA's support for a national nursing database to support clinical nursing practice.
Position Statement: Classifications for Nursing Practice
Position statement by ANA on classifications for nursing practice.
Pulse...Developing Ideas
Provides overview of ANA staff's discussions with staff at the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) concerning the inclusion of nursing diagnoses in the International Classification of Diseases.
Nursing & and Health Care Sites on the Internet
Links on Nursingworld for informatics and technology

Professional Organizations

Sites generated by health care providers.

Welcome to the Medical Records Institute
The Medical Records Institute
ACR-Economics Publications
American College of Radiology
Conversion between versions of the ICD mental disorders
Conversion tables between various versions of the ICD for mental disorders by the World Health Organization.
ICD-9-CM Coding - Central Office on ICD-9-CM
Central Office on ICD-9-CM serves as a clearinghouse and has educational functions, It is a joint effort of the American Hospital Association (AHA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Nursing Informatics; Nursing informatics; AMIA
Nursing Informatics Work Group section of The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA).
IMIA Newsletter Home Page
International Medical Informatics Association
International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®)
Site by the International Council of Nurses. "The ICNP provides a structured and defined vocabulary and unifying framework in which existing vocabularies and classifications can be entered to enable comparison of nursing data."

Classification/nomenclature sites

Sites that have evolved at educational centers.

Center for Nursing Classification
The Center for Nursing Classification, located at The University of Iowa, College of Nursing was established in 1995 to facilitate the ongoing research of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC).
Nursing Diagnosis and Extension Classification Home Page
Nursing Diagnosis and Extension Classification Home Page, NDEC. Purpose of the project is to complete a two-phase program of research to refine, extend, validate and classify the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) taxonomy of nursing diagnoses.
DUMC - Links to coding systems
Provides links to information on national and international standards for the codes that represent healthcare concepts.
DUMC - Health Informatics Standards
Duke University's site is a catalog of information about healthcare informatics standards.
DUMC - Health Informatics Standards - Specialty Groups
Links from Duke University for Health Informatics Standards by Speciality.
UC Davis Health System, Center for Medical Informatics Home Page
University of California Davis Health System, Center for Medical Informatics Web Site. Go to current projects for information related to classification.
Site that is developing to further the understanding and implementation of the Omaha System.


Federal and state resources

NCVHS Work Group on Computer-based Patient Records Meeting
Broadcast of meeting on the invited testimony by nurses regarding nursing languages/classification. Karen Martin, Virginia Saba, Dorothy Jones, Sue Moorehead, and Judy Ozbolt are some presenters.
Long Term Care Minimum Data Set 2.0
HCFA's site that stores and distributes technical information related to the MDS 2.0 resident assessment instrument.
Federal Healthcare Informatics Standards Activities
Healthcare Informatics Standards, Activities of Selected Federal Agencies (A Compendium), September 1996, Sponsored by Center for Information Technology, Agency for Health Care Policy and research Prepared by Moshman Associates, Inc. Bethesda, Maryland
Unified Medical Language System
Overview of the Unified Medical Language System begun in 1986 by the National Library of Medicine, (NLM).
HCFA Public Use Files (PUFs)
Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA) Public Use Files. Scroll down to ICD files or DRG files for downloading.
State-Level Integration Homepage
Registry of state-level efforts to integrate health information that was developed by US Department of Health & Human Services<
The Center for Nursing Classification
Gives overview of classification research conducted at the University of Iowa College of Nursing. Link is from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services.
An Overview of NIC, Jan 1996
Provides a description of The Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Link is from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services
International Classification of Diseases, 10 Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM)
Site by the National Center for Health statistics that gives overview of disease classification.
Most Frequent Diagnoses and Procedures for DRGs, by Insurance Status
Information from AHCPR on the most frequent diagnoses and procedures for the top 50 diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in 1992.
UMLS Metathesaurus
The UMLS Metathesaurus is one of four knowledge sources developed and distributed by the National Library of Medicine as part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The Metathesaurus contains information about biomedical concepts and terms from many controlled vocabularies and classifications used in patient records, administrative health data, bibliographic and full-text databases and expert systems. It preserves the names, meanings, hierarchical contexts, attributes, and inter-term relationships present in its source vocabularies; adds certain basic information to each concept; and establishes new relationships between terms from different source vocabularies.
Final Report, Chap 14: Investing in Information Systems
Building the Capacity to Improve Quality, Chapter Fourteen, Investing in Information Systems By The President's Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry.


Scholarly work from range of sources

To Classify Is Human
"To Classify Is Human" by Susan Leigh Star, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Hypertext `96 Keynote Talk, March 3, 1996.
Lest we remember
Lest we remember: organizational forgetting and the production of knowledge, Geoffrey C. Bowker, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The Multiple Bodies of the Medical Record
The Multiple Bodies o the Medical Record: Towards a Sociology of an Artifact, Marc Berg, University of Maastricht, Geoffrey Bowker, University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana.
Actor Network Theory and Classification
How things (actor-net)work: Classification, magic and the ubiquity of standards, Geoffrey C. Bowker, Susan Leigh Star, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, November 18, 1996.
The Architecture of Difference
The Architecture of Difference: Visibility, Control, and Comparability in Building a Nursing Interventions Classification, Stefan Timmermans, Geoffrey C. Bowker, Susan Leigh Star, University of Illinois 326 Lincoln Hall, 702 South Wright Street Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A.
Avoiding the mismeasurement of medicine and improving care [CMAJ - December 1,1997]
Avoiding the mismeasurement of medicine and improving care, Robert M. Bernstein, PhD, MD, CM, CMAJ 1997;157:1549-51 (editorial).
A Rough Sets Approach to Patient Classification in Medical Records
A Rough Sets Approach to Patient Classification in Medical Records, Grace I. Paterson, Division of Medical Education, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Poster Session at MEDINFO'95


Variety of organizations, articles that relate to nomenclature

Continuous Improvement
The Value of Incorporating The Omaha System into a Computerized Documentation System for Home Health Care, Bonnie Westra, PhD, RN, Care Facts.
IRP News Article on Medicare SR-DRGs
Medicare Severity-Refined DRGs Improves DRG Classifications By Steven Harris IRP Systems, Inc.